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Multiple Myeloma: Symptoms, Complications, and Treatment

People should remain vigilant regarding their physical and psychological health. If they exhibit symptoms that correlate with a serious illness, it is best to visit a specialist. Individuals who exhibit symptoms such as; nausea, confusion, body pains, and kidney damage must consult an oncologist. The specialist will conduct relevant tests to diagnose the illness, determine the cause and evaluate the severity of the condition. The treatment plan will help the patient manage the symptoms and function adequately in every aspect of life.

Multiple Myeloma and Its Symptoms

It is a disease in which cancer affects the bone marrow. The formation and maturing of the cells are hindered. It causes the person to suffer from extreme chest and spine pain. The patient requires immediate medical attention to avoid complications. The common symptoms of multiple myeloma are:

  • The person suffers from hypercalcemia. The condition causes excessive calcium in the body. The person suffers from extreme thirst at all times, fatigue, and loss of appetite. Additionally, the patient may suffer from gastrointestinal issues along with confusion.
  • The patient suffers from kidney problems due to increased protein levels in the blood. The damage to the vital organ responsible for flushing out the toxins can be permanent.
  • The patient suffers from anemia. It causes them to remain inactive, slow, and irritable.
  • The patient suffers from frequent infections due to a weakened immune system. It affects their overall health and is susceptible to infections; that may cause permanent damage or lead to death.
  • Due to excessive calcium, the person suffers from bone problems. The patient experiences unbearable pelvic, spine, chest, and back pain.

Known Causes of Multiple Myeloma

The causes of multiple myeloma are:

  • Due to abnormal production of plasma, the patient suffers from the symptoms of the disease. 
  • Individuals having blood relatives diagnosed with the conditions, are at a higher risk of developing the disorder.
  • Men above fifty are more prone to suffer from multiple myeloma in comparison to women.
  • Individuals with higher BMI are at a higher risk of developing the condition along with other associated complications.
  • Individuals who have exposure to radiation therapy are more likely to suffer from the condition.
  • Individuals using immunosuppressants have a weakened immune system, which increases the chances of developing multiple myeloma.

Complications Associated with Multiple Myeloma

The complications that correlate with the condition are:

  • Due to excessive calcium in the body, the person suffers from extreme pain that may cause hindrance to the functioning and permanent bone damage.
  • The person is at a higher risk of suffering from infections that may affect the functioning of vital organs.
  • The patient is at a higher risk of developing other blood disorders. It can lead to bone marrow failure.

Diagnosing Multiple Myeloma

Tests that assist in diagnosing an individual with multiple myeloma are:

  • Blood Testing: the test helps check the levels of beta 2- macroglobulin and calcium; to evaluate the functioning of the kidneys. It helps check the severity of the condition.
  • Imaging Testing: X-ray, MRI, and CT scans help detect bone damage.
  • Biopsy: The bone marrow biopsy helps analyze the abnormality in the formation of cells.

Effective Treatment Options:

The medications, therapy, and procedures that have proven effective in treating the condition are:

  • Chemotherapy helps fight and kill cancerous cells.
  • Targeted therapy attacks and kills the cancerous cells.
  • Corticosteroids help reduces the inflammation in the body and eases pain.
  • A bone marrow transplant is a procedure in which there is a replacement of bone marrow given by a donor.
  • Radiation therapy aims to shrink the cancerous cells and reduce the spread in other parts of the body.

The person exhibiting symptoms of multiple myeloma must visit an oncologist in Islamabad for proper guidance regarding their condition, the survival rate, and effective treatment options to enhance their physical health. The specialist will help them opt for suitable treatment according to the severity of their condition to avoid complications.

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